Progressivism to New Deal: 1910 to 1939

1. Sectoral Patterns in the U.S. Economy, 1866 -1939

2. The Securities Bloc, 1914 -- 1939: The Morgan-First National Sector

3a. Eastern Rate Case: Shipppers Assocation, 1910: Chicago Subset

3b. Eastern Rate Case: Shipppers Assocation, 1910: New England Subset

4. Business Advisory Council, 1933

5. "Business Advisors Uphold President", May 3, 1935

6. Corporatists, 1939: Ezekiel List

7. Keynesian Elite in the Second New Deal State, 1927 – 1937

Input-Output approach is basis for this page

My own work on the Keynesian Elite in the New Deal state goes up to 1939.  At that time the political economy was dominted by three hegemons:

1) the export-oriented South and Atlantic and parts of Miss valley (grain exports via Illinois Central--but both Lincoln and Douglass tied to IC-CHECK)
2) the securities bloc
3) the emergent mass consumption sector

It was the latter that provided the socio-economic sinew for modern progressivism (1890s to 1930s) whose key personanlity was Louis D. Brandeis.

After that my knowledge drops off a cliff.  Nevertheless, one can see a new kind of cold-war progressive elite emerging in the Twentieth Century Fund and the Committee for Economic Development.  On the CED, see list in Committee for Economic Development, "The International Trade Organization and the Reconstruction of World Trade" (New York, 1949)

Most interesting in this regard is the membership list of the Citizens' Committee for Reciprical World Trade of 1948,
found in United States Senate, Committee on Finance, "Extending Authoirity to Negotiate Trade Agrements," 80th Congress, 2nd Session, Hearings (1948).  Heading this Committee was Alger Hiss.

Trade and the American dream: a social history of postwar trade policy By Susan A. Aaronson re citizens committee HISS LIST

This approach differs from that of Mark S. Mizruchi, The American Corporate Network, 1904-1974 (Sage, 1982).  Mizruchi defines sectors categorially/extrinsically  (industrials, transports, insurances, investment banks, and banks--p. 113); I derive them immanently from input-output flows qua realization process.

1.  Sectoral Patterns in the U.S. Economy, 1869-1939

Sector of Realization

Commodities and Functions/Services
I.                     Commodities in International Trade Tobacco
Sugar           See Rosen for 1932 list
II.                                                   Securities Bloc Securities & Finance
Legal Services
Primary Materials
Captive Capital Goods
   IIIa.                                           Mass Consumption
and Mass Housing
⎨The Taylor Society elite⎬
 IIIb.                                           Captive Production
⎨The Taylor Society manufacturing base⎬
Modern Machinery
Continuous Process
⎨Twentieth Century Fund, CED⎬
2.  The Securities Bloc, 1914 -- 1939: The Morgan-First National Sector
SOURCE: National Resources Committee, The Structure of the American Economy, Part I (1939), pp. 309-312
SOURCE: National Resources Committee, The Structure of the American Economy, Part I (1939), pp. 309-312


Bankers Trust Co. of New York
Bankers Trust Co.
New York Trust Co.

Consolidated Edison of N.Y.
National Power & L:ight
United Gas Improvement
Electric Power & Light
American Poer & Light
American Gas & Electric
Niagra Hudson Power
Columbia Gas & Electric
Commonwealth & Southern
Pubic Service Corporaton of New York

American Telephone & Telegraph
International Telphone & Telegraph

New York Central
Atkinson, Topeka & Sante Fe
Great Northern
Delaware, Lakawanna & Western
Western Pacific
Missouri Pacific
Denver & Rio Grande
Chicago & Eastern Illinois
Primary Materials

United States Steel
Kennecott Copper
Phelphs Dodge
Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron
St. Regis Paper
Captive Suppliers of Capital Goods

The Pullman Company
General Electric
American Radiator
Baldwin Locomotive

3a.  Eastern Rate Case: Shippers Association, 1910: Chicago subset                             3b. ERC 1910 New England Witnesses

Evidence Taken by the Interstate Commerece Comission in the Matter of Proposed Advances in Freight Rates by Carriers,
August to December 1910, Senate Doc. 725, 61 Cong., 3 Sess., Vol. 1  pp. 6-15

Mass Consumer-Oriented Firms


Sears, Roebuck
Marshall Field & Co.
Mandel Brothers
B. Kuppenheimer
Montgomery Ward
Siegel, Cooper & Co.
G.W. Shelton & Co.

Hart,  Shafner, & Marx
Rosenwald & Weil, Inc.
The Hub (Henry C. Lytton & Sons)
Charles A. Stevens & Brothers
Percival B. Palmer & Co.
Warren Featherbone

Millinery, Gloves, Hats, Hosiery
Bush Hat Co.
Chicagao Mercantile Co.
Joseph N. Eisendrath Co.
Parrotte, Beals & Co.
C.D. Osborn Co.

Wilder & Co.
Guthman, Carpenter, & Telling Co.
Smith-Wallace Shoe Co.
The Rice and Hutchins Chicago Co.
Selz, Schwap & Co.
R.P. Smith & Sons & Co.

Food & Related
Southern Cotton Oil Co. (Wesson Oil)
Booth Fisheries
National Biscuit Co.
Nordyke and Marmon Co.
   (flour and cerial    
   milling machinery)
Beech-Nut Packing
Sprague, Warner & Co.
   (flavoring extracts,  
   preserves, beverages)
Steel-Wedeles Co.
   (importing, jobbing &
   mfg. of grocieries and
W.M. Hoyt Co.
Frankln MacVeagh & Co.
Oerlich & Laux, Inc.
Charles B. Ford & Co.
   (butter, eggs,
   poultry--brokers and
W.T. Rawleigh Co.
   (veterinary and pultry
E.B. Millar & Co. (tea,
   coffie--importing and
Libby, McNeil, & Libby
Decatur Brewing Co.
Thomson & Taylor Co.
   (coffee, spices--mfg
   for jobbers)
Reid, Murdoch & Co.
   (coffee, pickles,
   peanut butter)
Rueckheim Bros. &
   Eckstein (candy,
United Cerial Mills
   (Washington Crisps,
   Egg-O-See, Toasted
   Corn Flakes)

Soap & Related
James S. Kirk
Frigid Fluid Co.
The Fairbanks, N.K. Co.
Darling & Co.
Globe Rending
Pacific Coast Borax Co.
Fitzpatrick Bros. Soap

Packaging & Paper
Humel & Downing Co.
Sanfod Mfg. Co.
The Paper Mills' Co.
J.W. Butler Paper Co.

Mass Housing Supply Industries

U.S. Cast Iron Pipe & Foundry James B. Clough
Kewanee Boiler

Crane Co.    
H. Mueller & Co.
Illinois Malleable Iron Co.
Joseph T. Ryerson & Son
Devoe & Reynolds
Adams & Elting Co.
George S. Mepham & Co.
Hibbard, Spencer, Bartlett & Co.

American Lumberman
Lumber World Review
Morgan Sash & Door
Chicago House Wrecking Co.
John V. Farwell Co. (wholesale furniture, carpets, etc)
Union Furniture
Balkwill & Patch Furniture Co. Inc.
W.W. Kimball Co. (pianos, etc.)
Lyon & Healy, Inc. (pianos, etc.)
Tonk Manufacturing (piano benches)
Foley & Williams (sewing machines, supplies, pianos)
The Brunswick Balke Collendar Co.
Chicago Portrait Co.
Pitkin & Brook, Importers, Mfg and Distributors (china, glass, lamps)
M. Paulman & Co.

Diversified Capital Goods, Esp. Agricultural Implements

International Harvster

Deere & Co.
Emerson-Brantigam Co.
R. Herschel Manufacturing Co.
Rock Isoand Plow Co.
Star Mfg. Co.

Link-Belt Co.
Smith Mfg. Co.
Williams, White & Co.
Whiting Foundry Equipment Co.
Whitman & Barnes Co. (twist drils & reamers)
The Delaval Seperator Co.
Griffin Wheel Co.
Galena Sigal Oil Co.


General Chemical Co.
Lehigh Valley Railroad
Peabody Coal
Inland Steel

New England's Progressive Capitalists

This column lists the Progressive business elite represented by LDB (see Alon Gal, Brandeis of Boston, Harvard University Press, 1980)

Louis D. Brandeis, the Lenin of Progressivism, in his own words

Harold Urofsky, ed., Letters of Louis D. Brandeis, Vol I (1870-1907): Urban Reformer (State University of New York Press,  1971); Vol II (1907-1912): People's attorney; Vol. III (1913-1915): Progressive and Zionist (State University of New York Press, 1971-78)

higher-order macro functions

David O. Ives, manager of the Transportation Department of the Boston Chamber of Commerce

John S. Lawrence, Lawrence & Co.  The selling department of the textile mills in New England

testimony of Lawrence

*JOHN S. LAWRENCE, called as a witness on behalf of the shipping interests, being first duly sworn, testified as follows:
Direct examination by Mr. Louis D. BRANDEIS:
Mr. BRANDEIS. What is your business?
Mr. LAWRENCE. Merchant; dry-goods merchant.
Mr. BRANDEIS. Your firm?
Mr. LAWRENCE. The firm of Lawrence & Co., with headquarters at Boston and New York and west.
Mr. BRANDEIS. What is the general character of your business?
Mr. LAWRENCE. The general character of our business is the business of commission merchants; in fact, the selling department of the textile mills in New England.


Charles H. Jones, President of the Commonealth Shoe and Leather Company of Whitman, Massachusetts (a close associate of Louis D. Brandeis), representing the New Engand Shoe and Leather Association

*Guy T. Miller, treasurer of the Bridgeport Brass Company

B.F. Curtis of the Norton Company (a major manufacturer of grinding wheels and abrasives)

George H. Benkhart, of Smith, Klein and French Company (drugs and baby foods)

Edwin F. Forbes, President of the New England Confectionary Company

A.C. Lorion, rrepresenting the Wright Wire Company of Worcester and Palmer, Massachusetts (wire cloth for poultry netting)

the Grayton and Knight Manufacturing Company, and the Metal Trades Assocation  of Worcester (mostly machine tool manufacturers)

and E.A. Stuart, of the Mitchell-Woodbury Company, Boston (importers of crockery and china)

4. Business Advisory Council, 1933

SOURCE: G. William Domhoff, The Higher Circles: The Governing Class in America (Random house, 1971), pp. 213-215
Corporatists International Harvester
Gneal Motors
E.I. DuPont de Nemours
Mass Consumption
High Tech &Continuous Process Multinationals
5.  "Business Advisors Uphold President",  (New York Times, May 3, 1935)
Henry I. Harriman
E.T. Stannard
F.B. Davis
U.S. Chamber of Commerce
Kennecott Copper Co.
United States Rubber Company
Winthrop Aldrich
W.A. Harriman
Chase National Bank
Brown Brothers, Harriman
Mass Consumption
Sidney Weinberg
Lincoln Filene
Lew Hahn
George H. Mead
H.P. Kendall
Charles A. Cannon
Delancy Kountze
Morris Leeds
A.P. Greenfelder
H.H. Heinman
William Julian
Gano Dunn
Goldman Sachs
William Filene's Sons
Natonal Retail Dry Goods
Mead Corporaton
H. P. Kendall Company
Cannon Towels
Devoe and Reynolds Company
Leeds and Northrup Company
credit association
Queen City Trust Company
Grace National Bank
Continuous Process Multinationals
R.R. Dupree
Robert Lund
Proctor & Gamble
Lambert Pharmacal Company

6.  Corporatists, 1939: Ezekiel List

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Record Group No. 16, "Business Conditions" Folder,
"Memorandum for the Secretary," Mordecai Ezekiel to Henry Wallace, April 11, 1939
Corporatists S. Sloan Colt
James E. Fogarty
James Forrestal
Pierre Jay
Lindsay Bradford
Edward Stettinius
Gerad Swope
Arthur Page
William Batt
Edward R. Ryerson
George H. Houston
Wendell Willkie
Fred Williamson
Donaldson Brown
David Godrich
Bankers Trust
North American Company
Dillon Reed & Company
Fiduciary Trust
City Bank Farmers Trust
United States Steel
General Elctric
American Telephone & Telegraph
S.K.F. Corporation
Inland Stel
Baldwin Locomotive
Commonwealth and Southern
New York Central Railroad
General Motors
Goodrich Tire
General R.E. Wood
Donald Nelson
Sewell Avery
Lewis R. Brown
Sears, Roebuck & Company
Sears, Roebuck & Company
Montgomer Ward
Johns Manville Corporaton
Clarence Francis
Gerald Lambert
Gerald Lambert
E.E. Puryear
General Foods
Lambert Pharmacal Company
Gillette Razor Company
Texas Company