Bildung: The Keynesian Elite in the New Deal State, 1910-1939
(figures 1 and 2)

KE Documents  

the Keynesian Elite as the Vanguard of the Mass Consumption Sector

Morris L. Cooke, the central figure of the Taylor Societ,) can stand for a homogeneous praxiological habitus, milieu, and network: the Keynesian Elite  (see Fig. 2).  Cooke was active in the Brookwood Labor College, Conference for Progressive Political Action, and had an extensive correspondence with A. J. Muste, who played an important role in the Toledo Auto Lite Strike of 1934.  Brookwood supplied a large number of its students into the fledgling UAW, including Victor Reuther . . .   

FDR, on the other hand, stands for the ontological heterogeneity of his Administration, as the site of fundamental conflict between competing elites (Fig. 1), as the scene of emergent functions and institutional formations (NLRB, NRPB, etc.), and the locus of synthesis of elite competition into a homogeneous form of hegemony over the population: the Cold War and anti-Communism(1).  The guise in which this appears today [[2009]] is The War on Terror.  Now, after the election of 2016, a strikingly ironic ttwist emerges.  The power bloc of white supremacy's path to absolute power has now embraced the ruling elites of Russia, North Korea, Turkey, and Brazil and embraced the former Satan--Russia--in its war of revenge against modern society.  Their(Gerald L. K. Smith, Father Coughlin, McCarthy (ism?), Goldwater, Nixon, Reagan Bush, Bush and Trump) abandonment of anti-communism as (Nietzshe quote how the strong dominate the weak) their homogeneous form of hegemony over the population that resulted from the Grand Bargain between post-war deomicraic elites and resurgent fascism
Patrimonialism in 21st century

Elites in the Moboiliation of Ressentiment 

What is different now, and of great significance, is the specific formations of "capital" hegemonic within the Trump bloc.  Trump, Shelton Adelson, Broidy, Attny Gen'l beofre Barr; Kavanahchr fare ;the apotheosis of jpetty bourgeois decadence.

from Werner Stark,  Sociology of Religion: A Study of Christendom (Fordham University Press, 1966-72) vol. 1, p. 188

"As democratic convictions became settled . . . 'the people' emerged increasingly as the true sovereign, and the conception gained ground that 'the people' is sane and sound, and its voice, at least to some extent, is sacred."

from Friederich Nietzsche, The Will to Power, 863

“The values of the weak prevail because the strong have taken them over as devices of leadership."

White supremacy exacted its pound of flesh iin the form of the governing ;configuration of cold war Keynesianis.

It is utterly naive to conceive of FDR or any modern President as a unitary, homogeneous agent. 


                          Morris L. Cooke                                                        FDR
These competing elites are in part defined by the input-ouput matrices (really existing markets, praxiological flows) of the major sectors of the American political economy (Fig. 1).  Such matrices are shorthand ways of referring to inputs of money, raw materials, intermediate goods, and services; and outputs of raw materials, intermediate goods, finished goods, and services. For three examples, see below: Figure 5. Taylor Society, 1927: Mass Distribution, input-output flows; Figure 6.  Taylor Society, 1927: Mass Housing, input-output flows; and Figure  13.  Local companies, designers, and laborers that worked on the Northern Life Tower.

This concept of ontological heterogeneity--of elite conflict within the Administration of FDR--enables a more realist approach to the notion of two New Deals: the New Deal of the National Recovery Administration (1933-34/5), and the Second New Deal (1935-37/8).  Realist here refers to a method of looking beyond the question of what FDR may have had "in mind."  Looking for an adequate empirical field, level of detail, until one reaches the point where new concepts emerge.  Elite competition within the admin. of FDR is such a concept.

This page is primarily about the most dynamic and modern of these sectors within the Administration of FDR, and is based on research at the Library of Congress, the National Archives, and the FDR Library.  But because The KE emerged in conflict with older networks of power, something must be said about them.

The Securities bloc was the object of analysis by Louis D. Brandeis in his book Other People's Money.  Brandeis used the results of the Pujo Committee's Investigation of Financial and Monetary Conditions in the United States (see Pujo Committee Interlocking Directorates 1912).  A defining moment in the conflict between the emerging mass consumption sector and the Securities bloc was the Eastern Rate Case of 1910, out of which emerged the Taylor Society.  (see unfinished tables here.)

Commodities in International Trade includes much of the transportation and services infrastructure primarily dependent on such trade and thus belongs to the imput-output matrix of the latter: shipping, railroad, insurance, legal and other services.  (W. Averill Harriman Wiki article).  Elliot A. Rosen, Hoover, Roosevelt, and the Brains Trust: from Depression to New Deal (Columbia University Press, 1977), although not conceptualizing it as such, gives a compelling description of Commodities in International Trade in action around the candidacies of Al Smith and Newton Baker.  Also see Irving Katz, August Belmont; a political biography (Columbia University Press, 1968).
                          Figure 1.  U.S. Political Economy by Sector, 1910-1938          

see Rosen for 1932 list

Other People's Money
Pujo Committee

The Taylor Society: elite firms

The Taylor Society: manufacturing firms

Pollak Foundation
Twentieth Century Fund

Committee for Economic Development
Hiss List

Figure 2.  Taylor Society I: Keynesian Elite in the New Deal State, 1910-1938, is the obvious point of departure if one is to understand the dynamic of reform in the first half of the twentieth century.

Figure 1.  U.S. Political Economy by Sector, 1910-1938, is the necessary context in which to understand Figure 2.

Figure 2.  Taylor Society I: Keynesian Elite in the New Deal State
Source: "Membership List, May 1927," in the Morris L. Cooke Papers, box 66, FDR Library and
United States Government Manual 1937

for more info on Fig.2 click on Keynesian Elite: Career Matrix

Figure 8a.  Eastern Rate Case: Shippers Association, 1910: Chicago subset
Mass Consumer-Oriented Firms


Sears, Roebuck

Marshall Field & Co.
Mandel Brothers
B. Kuppenheimer
Montgomery Ward
Siegel, Cooper & Co.
G.W. Shelton & Co.

Hart,  Shafner, & Marx
Rosenwald & Weil, Inc.
The Hub (Henry C. Lytton & Sons)
Charles A. Stevens & Brothers
Percival B. Palmer & Co.
Warren Featherbone

Millinery, Gloves, Hats, Hosiery
Bush Hat Co.
Chicagao Mercantile Co.
Joseph N. Eisendrath Co.
Parrotte, Beals & Co.
C.D. Osborn Co.

Wilder & Co.
Guthman, Carpenter, & Telling Co.
Smith-Wallace Shoe Co.
The Rice and Hutchins Chicago Co.
Selz, Schwap & Co.
R.P. Smith & Sons & Co.

Food & Related
Southern Cotton Oil Co. (Wesson Oil)
Booth Fisheries
National Biscuit Co.
Nordyke and Marmon Co.
   (flour and cerial   
   milling machinery)
Beech-Nut Packing
Sprague, Warner & Co.
   (flavoring extracts,  
   preserves, beverages)

Food & Related, cont.

Steel-Wedeles Co.

   (importing, jobbing &
   mfg. of grocieries and
W.M. Hoyt Co.
Frankln MacVeagh & Co.
Oerlich & Laux, Inc.
Charles B. Ford & Co.
   (butter, eggs,
   poultry--brokers and
W.T. Rawleigh Co.
   (veterinary and pultry
E.B. Millar & Co. (tea,
   coffie--importing and
Libby, McNeil, & Libby
Decatur Brewing Co.
Thomson & Taylor Co.
   (coffee, spices--mfg
   for jobbers)
Reid, Murdoch & Co.
   (coffee, pickles,
   peanut butter)
Rueckheim Bros. &
   Eckstein (candy,
United Cerial Mills
   (Washington Crisps,
   Egg-O-See, Toasted
   Corn Flakes)

Soap & Related
James S. Kirk
Frigid Fluid Co.
The Fairbanks, N.K. Co.
Darling & Co.
Globe Rending
Pacific Coast Borax Co.
Fitzpatrick Bros. Soap

Packaging & Paper
Humel & Downing Co.
Sanfod Mfg. Co.
The Paper Mills' Co.
J.W. Butler Paper Co.

Source: Evidence Taken by the Interstate Commerece Comission in the Matter of Proposed Advances in Freight Rates by Carriers,
August to December 1910, Senate Doc. 725, 61 Cong., 3 Sess., Vol. 1  pp. 6-15

Figure 8b.  Eastern Rate Case: Shippers Association, 1910: Chicago subset
Mass Housing Supply Firms & Diversified Capital Goods

Mass Housing Supply Industries

U.S. Cast Iron Pipe & Foundry James B. Clough
Kewanee Boiler
Crane Co.    
H. Mueller & Co.
Illinois Malleable Iron Co.
Joseph T. Ryerson & Son
Devoe & Reynolds
Adams & Elting Co.
George S. Mepham & Co.
Hibbard, Spencer, Bartlett & Co.

American Lumberman
Lumber World Review
Morgan Sash & Door
Chicago House Wrecking Co.
John V. Farwell Co. (wholesale furniture, carpets, etc)
Union Furniture
Balkwill & Patch Furniture Co. Inc.
W.W. Kimball Co. (pianos, etc.)
Lyon & Healy, Inc. (pianos, etc.)
Tonk Manufacturing (piano benches)
Foley & Williams (sewing machines, supplies, pianos)
The Brunswick Balke Collendar Co.
Chicago Portrait Co.
Pitkin & Brook, Importers, Mfg and Distributors (china, glass, lamps)
M. Paulman & Co.

Diversified Capital Goods, Esp. Agricultural Implements

International Harvster
Deere & Co.
Emerson-Brantigam Co.
R. Herschel Manufacturing Co.
Rock Isoand Plow Co.
Star Mfg. Co.

Link-Belt Co.
Smith Mfg. Co.
Williams, White & Co.
Whiting Foundry Equipment Co.
Whitman & Barnes Co. (twist drils & reamers)
The Delaval Seperator Co.
Griffin Wheel Co.
Galena Sigal Oil Co.


General Chemical Co.
Lehigh Valley Railroad
Peabody Coal
Inland Steel
SOURCE: Evidence Taken by the Interstate Commerece Comission in the Matter of Proposed Advances in Freight Rates by Carriers,
August to December 1910, Senate Doc. 725, 61 Cong., 3 Sess., Vol. 1  pp. 6-15

Figure 9.  Eastern Rate Case 1910: New England Witnesses

higher-order macro functions

David O. Ives, manager of the Transportation Department of the Boston Chamber of Commerce

John S. Lawrence, Lawrence & Co.  The selling department of the textile mills in New England


Charles H. Jones, President of the Commonealth Shoe and Leather Company of Whitman, Massachusetts (a close associate of Louis D. Brandeis), representing the New Engand Shoe and Leather Association

Guy T. Miller, treasurer of the Bridgeport Brass Company

B.F. Curtis of the Norton Company (a major manufacturer of grinding wheels and abrasives)

George H. Benkhart, of Smith, Klein and French Company (drugs and baby foods)

Edwin F. Fobes, President of the New England Confectionary Company

A.C. Lorion, representing the Wright Wire Company of Worcester and Palmer, Massachusetts (wire cloth for poultry netting), the Grayton and Knight Manufacturing Company (belting), and the Metal Trades Assocation of Worcester (mostly machine tool manufacturers)

E.A. Stuart, of the Mitchell-Woodbury Company, Boston (importers of crockery and china)


Figure 5.  Taylor Society, 1927: Mass Distribution, input-output flows
Source: "Membership List, May 1927," in the Morris L. Cooke Papers, box 66, FDR Library

Figure 6.  Taylor Society, 1927: Mass Housing, input-output flows
Source: "Membership List, May 1927," in the Morris L. Cooke Papers, box 66, FDR Library

Figure 7.  Taylor Society, 1927: Machinery

Figure 4.  The Taylor Society III: Producer Services,* 1927
Source: "Membership List, May 1927," in the Morris L. Cooke Papers, box 66, FDR Library

Stern letters to FDR 1935; other second new deal business men

from Memorandum for FF, The White House, March 2, 1936 (ibid., p. 333)

(b)  I wish you and Lasswell would try to work up a list of those smaller, independent business men -- say fifteen or twenty -- whom I could invite to Washington.  I know of no way of getting up such a list. . . . .

(d)  I hope to have a talk with Lincoln Filene.  I saw him the other day for a miinute but only with a group.  Please ask him if he can come down a little later on.

from Roosevelt and Frankfurter: Their Correspondence, 1928-1945 (1967)

If American history means anything it means that Presidents, on the whole, are the expression of the convergence and conflict of dominant forces . . . .  I hold fast to the proposition that what matters in politics is the direction to which impetus is given, and what determines impetus is very largely the direction of the powerful forces that are enlisted on one side and on the other. pp. 357-8  (circa September 25/October 1, 1936)

proto-Keynesian discourse, circa 1871: origins of the multiplier effect

from Prophets of Regulation: Charles Francis Adams, Louis D. Brandeis, James M. Landis, Alfred E. Kahn, By Thomas K. McCraw, pp. 35-36

The commission tried the cocked-gun approach in a circular letter mailed out to all Massachusetts railroads in 1871.  Adams' purpose was to promote rate reductions, by way of both enticements and threat.  The letter . . . outlined the reduced costs brought by technological innovation ("The locomotive which formerly cost $30,000 now costs but $12,000"), the unusual opportunity now at hand ("Massachusetts is at this time susceptible of a very great and sudden industrial development"), and the payoff to the railroads thesmselves ("It is a pefectly well-established fact in railroad economy, that where a community in industrially in an elastic condition . . . a reduction of railroad charges within certain limits does not necessarilly involve any loss of net profits").

The content of the rate recommendations revealed Adams' preoccupation with aggregate economic growth.  He emphasized, for example, a form of what economists later called the multiplier effect:

In making any reduction, whether in freight or fares, we would therefore suggest to you [Massachusetts railroad presidents] the propriety of strongly favoring certain commodities in general use along the line of the road, and, by so doing, strongly stimulate development, rather than neutralize the whole effect of any concessions you may make by dividing it among too many objects.  Take for instance coal . . . a primary raw material in all manufacturing industry.  Cheap coal is cheap power; and cheap power is cheap manufacturing.  A reduction of five per cent. throughout the charges of tariff would scarcely produce an appreciable effect on the consumption of anything; a tariff, unchanged in numerous other respects, which gave a reduction of fifty per cent. on the cost of carrying coal, would at once communicate an impetus to every branch of industry dependent on power.